Anxiety is a minor key. Pressed lightly it rings with a pang around exam results, dark alleys and unrequited love. Slammed, and it can become a heavy dread; oppressive, squat on your stomach like the demon of Henry Fuseli’s The Nightmare.
“Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold,” wrote WB Yeats. If you’re anxious, the world can feel like it’s unsustainable, incomprehensible, unraveling. From a medical point of view, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) comes about when those feelings of anxiety spiral out of control, impacting your daily life, making it hard to work, to sleep, even to breathe.
Digital technologies, and the social patterns they encourage, have had an undeniable effect on our relationship with anxiety. Constant email connectivity, social media and 24-hour news cycles have all had a part to play in carving out a society where we are bombarded with non-stop information and the self-publicity of friends and co-workers.
For example, a recent survey by children’s rights charity Plan International found that almost half of 11- to 18-year-old girls admitted that social media makes them feel like they have to look or act in a certain way. Similarly, a 2015 study from University College London and the Anna Freud Centre found that the emotional problems of girls aged 11-13 in England increased 55% between 2009 and 2014.
It would be easy to chalk this up to the rise of apps like Snapchat and Instagram, but the reasons likely spread much deeper than individual platforms – reverberating with everything from cultural distractions impacting academic pressures, to new levels of sexualisation amplified by social media.
“While new technologies such as smartphones and social media have the potential to connect people in ways that was quite unimaginable years ago, they also have the ability to impact on people’s’ anxieties, and it’s important to recognise this,” says Nicky Lidbetter, CEO of charity Anxiety UK.
“New technologies are being found to give rise to new issues such as ‘disconnectivity anxiety’, while they can also contribute to people experiencing difficulties switching off and being able to concentrate on meaningful activities. Like most things, it is important to achieve a balance when it comes to using technology.”
Platforms such as Facebook and Twitter are designed to encourage near-constant interaction, from the sounds chosen for notifications to the dots, flags and other symbols to needle you into consuming fresh content. With habit-forming patterns conditioning your brain to anticipate the sights and sounds of interaction, social media can feel incredibly addictive. As Lidbetter notes, this can lead to anxieties about checking your accounts, and a feeling of emptiness when those habits undermine other activities or relationships.
Relationship and sexual anxiety
Marian O’Connor, a psychosexual therapist at Tavistock Relationships, explains that the patterns brought on by new technology can create anxiety in relationships, with partners becoming disconnected even when they’re sitting besides each other. “There used to be a time when your partner was at home with you in the evening, you felt that you know where your partner was. Now you can be in the same room but each on your smartphone and chatting on social media with different people with different interests.
“As you reach over to see what your partner is up to, he or she can close the page or lock the phone,” she adds. “Couples can spend a whole evening together without ever talking to one another but chatting instead to others. How do you know whether your partner is really focused on arranging the next football team outing or whether he is moving between the football WhatsApp group and an online dating site?”
For those that are single, dating apps such as Tinder and Grindr can offer up a whole other platter of anxieties. While these platforms have done much for sexual liberation, breaking open limitations around the amount of potential partners people can meet, they can also encourage a quasi-consumerist approach to dating. The emphasis on personal appearance, coupled with the sheer quantity of people using the apps, can make connections feel depersonalised and transactional.
“This depersonalisation can cause some people to feel that potential sexual partners aren’t interested in knowing them as individuals but only as sexual objects,” says O’Connor. “This can result in an uncomfortable body-mind split which can lead to depression and low self-esteem.”
How to alleviate anxiety brought on by technology
The good news is that we’re becoming more conscious about the effect of digital technology on our mental health. Over the past few months, there have been a number of prominent articles covering individuals attempts to detox by forgoing social media altogether (this one in The Guardian is particularly good). With this year marking the tenth anniversary of the iPhone, it could well be that the hyperconnectivity of the past decade is giving way to a more measured approach to smartphones and social media.
“By simply being mindful of how much time you are spending on social media, you’re putting yourself in a far better position”
“There certainly seems to be growing awareness of the potential impacts, both positive and negative, that social media use can have, which is a good thing,” Lidbetter says. “By simply being mindful of how much time you are spending on social media and how it can influence your mood, you’re putting yourself in a far better position to ensure that you maintain a healthy balance. Setting time aside on a regular basis to have a ‘digital detox’ can be helpful in the management of anxiety caused by technology.”
Another part of this backlash is the growth of apps and technologies specifically angled at alleviating the anxiety brought on by modern life. This includes a whole array of tools designed to make it easier for people to sleep, as well as a plethora of more general apps advocating ways to gain peace of mind.
When online, it’s important to keep a sense of proportion about what you’re experiencing, and keep in mind that the facades people present on social media are not necessarily reflections of a person’s reality. “People specifically select photos and posts to share in order to present an edited and touched up portrayal of their life,” notes Lidbetter. “When people try to compare themselves to what is online they can often feel that they just don’t quite match up and they can influence their self-confidence.”
More generally, there are a number of simple tactics you can take to encourage wellbeing. Regularly connect face to face with people around you; to keep active; stay curious about the world; always aim to learn something new; and regularly give something to others – whether that’s offering a smile or volunteering at an organisation.
Regardless of how you spend your time, it’s always a good idea to take regular breaks from screens. That could mean actively putting down a smartphone for a short walk, or shutting a laptop screen to talk to loved ones. Either way, it’s a small step to take in wrestling smartphones from the centre of your mind, detaching from pan-global news networks, focusing on your immediate surroundings, and remembering that social media doesn’t deserve to have such a large sway over your life. “Like many things in life, it’s all about ensuring that you have balance,” says Lidbetter.